These methods it is held, downplay normal geographic variation and genetic diversity found in many human populations and have distorted a true picture of African peoples. Diop used this technique to determine the melanin content of the Egyptian mummies. In 1946, at the age of 23, Diop went to Paris to study. It could seem to tempting to delude the masses engaged in a struggle for national independence by taking liberties with scientific truth, by unveiling a mythical, embellished past. He gained his first degree (licence) in philosophy in 1948, then enrolled in the Faculty of Sciences, receiving two diplomas in chemistry in 1950. [12][13], In 1948 Diop edited with Madeleine Rousseau, a professor of art history, a special edition of the journal Musée vivant, published by the Association populaire des amis des musées (APAM). This way of viewing the data rejected Diop's insistence on Blackness, but at the same time it acknowledged the inconsistency with which data on African peoples were manipulated and categorized. Historian, anthropologist, physicist, politician. Dr Cheikh Anta Diop, the brilliant Black anthropologist, historian, and physicist was one of the great African thinkers of our time. Research in this area challenges the groupings used as (a) not reflecting today's genetic diversity in Africa, or (b) an inconsistent way to determine the racial characteristics of the Ancient Egyptians. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Keita and Rick A. Kittles, "The Persistence of Racial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence". These researchers hold that they too often rely on a stereotypical conception of pure or distinct races that then go on to intermingle. 14,321 people like this. Craniometric Affinities Considered With Other Data", S. O. Y. Keita. The RDA students continued to be highly active in politicizing the anti-colonial struggle and popularized the slogan "National independence from the Sahara to the Cape, and from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic. Obenga, Théophile (1992), "Le 'chamito-sémitique' n'existe pas". He claimed this put African historical linguistics on a secure basis for the first time. … (1978). And this appearance corresponds to something which makes us say that Europe is peopled by white people, Africa is peopled by black people, and Asia is people by yellow people. Get Directions. A number of individuals such as US college professor Leonard Jeffries[92] have advanced a more chauvinist view, citing Diop's work. [114] Diop's book "Civilization or Barbarism" was summarized as Afrocentric pseudohistory by academic and author Robert Todd Carroll.[8]. Diop's concept was of a fundamentally Black population that incorporated new elements over time, rather than mixed-race populations crossing arbitrarily assigned racial zones. When IFAN was transferred to Cheikh Anta Diop University in 1960, the building at Place Soweto near the National Assembly of … IÉSEG School of Management, Lille - Paris, France. [43], But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka, the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. He declared that the peoples of the region were all Africans, and decried the "bizarre and dangerous myths" of previously biased scholarship, "marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism. Brown and Armelagos, op. ix-x) to Obenga. However such conceptions are inconsistently applied when it comes to African peoples, where typically, a "true negro" is identified and defined as narrowly as possible, but no similar attempt is made to define a "true white". [19], In 1960, upon his return to Senegal, he continued what would be a lifelong political struggle. Cheikh Anta Diop University (French: Université Cheikh Anta Diop or UCAD), also known as the University of Dakar, is a university in Dakar, Senegal. sup de co dakar. He held that this was both hypocrisy and bad scholarship, that ignored the wide range of indigenous variability of African peoples. He said that their cultural, genetic and material links could not be defined away or separated into a regrouped set of racial clusters. [34] Diop also wrote a chapter entitled "Origin of the ancient Egyptians", in the UNESCO General History of Africa. [25], After 1960, Diop went back to Senegal and continued his research and political career. They contend the test is inappropriate to apply to ancient Egyptian mummies, due to the effects of embalming and deterioration over time. 80–82. In 1949, Diop registered a proposed title for a Doctor of Letters thesis, "The Cultural Future of African thought," under the direction of Professor Gaston Bachelard. (24) Jean Vercoutter at the 1974 UNESCO conference. In a 2004 study, 58 native inhabitants from upper Egypt were sampled for mtDNA. Tourneux (2010), "L'argument linguistique chez Cheikh Anta Diop et ses disciples", pp. It could seem to tempting to delude the masses engaged in a struggle for national independence by taking liberties with scientific truth, by unveiling a mythical, embellished past. In a 2004 study, 58 native inhabitants from upper Egypt were sampled for mtDNA. (1993), "La parenté génétique entre l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines moderns: L’exemple du duala", pp. [37] Diop's work has posed important questions about the cultural bias inherent in scientific research. More contemporary critics assert that notions of the Sahara as a dominant barrier in isolating sub-Saharan populations are both flawed and simplistic in broad historical context, given the constant movement of people over time, the fluctuations of climate over time (the Sahara was once very fertile), and the substantial representation of "sub Saharan" traits in the Nile Valley among people like the Badari. As one scholar at the 1974 symposium put it:[47]. Brown and Armelagos, op. When he published many of his ideas as the book Nations nègres et culture (Negro Nations and Culture), it made him one of the most controversial historians of his time. "[27], Diop published his technique and methodology for a melanin dosage test in the Bulletin of Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire. 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Diop held that scholarship in his era isolated extreme stereotypes as regards African populations, while ignoring or downplaying data on the ground showing the complex linkages between such populations. All through his life, Cheikh Anta DIOP led a political struggle for the liberation of Africa, its revival, its development and the construction of an Africa-wide Federal State able to cope with the challenges of the modern world. As regards Egyptian religion for example, there appear to be more solid connections with the cultures of the Sudan and northeast Africa than Mesopotamia, according to mainstream research:[58], Most anthropologists see commonalities in African culture but only in a very broad, generic sense, intimately linked with economic systems, etc. This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. [4] Cheikh Anta Diop University (formerly known as the University of Dakar), in Dakar, Senegal, is named after him. In 1946, at the age of 23, Diop went to Paris to study. This has shown that most of human genetic variation (some 85–90%) occurs within localized population groups, and that race only can account for 6–10% of the variation. [83] He concluded that Diop had assumed Egyptian and Wolof were related and then looked for ways to connect their features, disregarding evidence from other languages which might cast doubt on the resemblances claimed. There are common patterns such as circumcision, matriarchy etc., but whether these are part of a unique, gentler, more positive "Southern cradle" of peoples, versus a more grasping, patriarchal-flavored "Northern cradle" are considered problematic by many scholars, as is grouping the complexity of human cultures into two camps. No places to show. Diop contributed an article to the journal: "Quand pourra-t-on parler d’une renaissance africaine" (When we will be able to speak of an African Renaissance?). The same method was applied by four of Diop’s collaborators to Mbosi,[69] Duala,[70] Basa,[71] Fula[72][73] and a few other languages. [53]:236–259, Scholars such as Bruce Trigger condemned the often shaky scholarship on such northeast African peoples as the Egyptians. [101], The conclusion was that some of the oldest native populations in Egypt can trace part of their genetic ancestral heritage to East Africa. It is the physical appearance which counts. [84] Ngom[85] and Obenga[86] both eliminated the Asian Semitic and African Berber members of Greenberg's Afroasiatic family from the négro-africain family: Ngom added that the Bantu languages have more in common with Ancient Egyptian than do the Semitic ones. (1975). UNESCO Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script. Ngom, Gilbert. biological] mixture of the ancient Egyptian population, but nobody has yet defined what is meant by the term 'Negroid', nor has any explanation been proffered as to how this Negroid element, by mingling with a Mediterranean component often present in smaller proportions, could be assimilated into a purely Caucasoid race. Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script; Proceedings, pp. Diop, Cheik Anta (1973), in Preface (pp. Extrait de la conférence de Cheikh Anta Diop à Niamey en 1984 Addeddate 2009-03-18 15:02:09 Color color Identifier Diop_Niamey_5 Sound sound Year 1984 . [19] Under his leadership the first post-war pan-African student congress was organized in 1951. Demba Sy, Papa, "L'itinéraire Politique de Cheikh Anta Diop". The first, "Le Bloc des Masses Sénégalaises" (BMS), was formed in 1961. Under the "true negro" approach, Diop contended that those peoples who did not meet the stereotypical classification were attributed to mixture with outside peoples, or were split off and assigned to Caucasoid clusters. Danielle Maurice, "Le musée vivant et le centenaire de l’abolition de l’esclavage: pour une reconnaissance des cultures africaines". He examined various fields of artistic creation, with a discussion of African languages, which, he said, would be the sources of regeneration in African culture. He died on February 7, 1986 in Dakar, Senegal. Forgot account? When he published many of his ideas as the book Nations nègres et culture (Negro Nations and Culture), it made him one of the most controversial historians of his time. UNESCO Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script. Diop showed above all that European archaeologists before and after the decolonization had understated and continued to understate the extent and possibility of Black civilizations. [57] Some modern studies use DNA to define racial classifications, while others condemn this practice as selective filling of pre-defined, stereotypical categories.[58]. Sanders, Edith R. (1969), The Hamitic Hypothesis; pp. He claimed this put African historical linguistics on a secure basis for the first time. Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD) Licence Transmission de donnée et sécurité informatique option Cryptographie et informatique As one scholar at the 1974 symposium put it:[56]. Ancient Egyptians such as the Badarians show greater statistical affinities to tropical African types and are not identical to Europeans. In 1949, Diop registered a proposed title for a Doctor of Letters thesis, "The Cultural Future of African thought," under the direction of Professor, Diop's work has been subjected to criticism from a number of scholars. Alain Froment, 1991. Ngom, Gilbert. "[100] This outlook was unlike many of the contemporary white writers he questioned. Diop's presentation of his concepts at the Cairo UNESCO symposium on "The peopling of ancient Egypt and the deciphering of the Meroitic script", in 1974, argued that there were inconsistencies and contradictions in the way African data was handled. University of California, Santa Barbara, and James M. Burns, a professor in history at Clemson University, have both referred to Diop's writings of Ancient Egypt and his theories, characterizing it as "revisionist". Instead he views the Greeks as forming part of a "northern cradle", distinctively growing out of certain climatic and cultural conditions. He proposed that African culture should be rebuilt on the basis of ancient Egypt, in the same way that European culture was built upon the legacies of ancient Greece and Rome. [106], (F. Yurco "An Egyptological Review", 1996)[95]. Similarly, the Dynastic Race Theory of Egypt asserted that a mass migration of Caucasoid peoples was needed to create the Egyptian kingships, as slower-witted Negro tribes were incapable. By 1962 Diop's party working on the ideas enumerated in Black Africa: the economic and cultural basis for a federated state became a serious threat to the regime of then President Léopold Senghor. Doctorat de sociologie, Sociologie. First, that all political prisoners be released, and, secondly, that discussions be opened on government ideas and programs, not on the distribution of government posts. His cultural theory attempted to show that Egypt was part of the African environment as opposed to incorporating it into Mediterranean or Middle Eastern venues. [17], Diop had since his early days in Paris been politically active in the [15] The movement identified as a key task restoring the African national consciousness, which they argued had been warped by slavery and colonialism. cit. Diop said that he "acquired proficiency in such diverse disciplines as rationalism, dialectics, modern scientific techniques, prehistoric archeology and so on." 22,005 people follow this. [50] Under this approach, racial categories such as "Blacks" or "Caucasoids" are discarded in favor of localized populations showing a range of physical variation. Many cultures the world over show similar developments and a mixture of traits. Article Id: Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Lam, Aboubacry Moussa. One of Diop's most controversial issues centers on the definition of who is a true Black person. eschew "southern" and "northern" camps and point to a narrower focus that demonstrates cultural, material and genetic connections between Egypt and other nearby African (Nubian, Saharan, and Sudanic) populations. APAM had been set up in 1936 by people on the political left wing to bring culture to wider audiences. The reviewers found that some researchers seemed to have shifted their categories and methods to maintain this "special case" outlook. Touré, Maelenn-Kégni, "Cheikh Anta Diop University (1957--)", BlackPast.org. Mixed-race theories have also been challenged by contemporary scholars in relation to African genetic diversity. Diop's concept was of a fundamentally Black population that incorporated new elements over time, rather than mixed-race populations crossing arbitrarily assigned racial zones. [67] Diop devoted most of his study to the structural resemblances between one modern African language, Wolof, and Ancient Egyptian,[68] adding some references to other modern languages. Nevertheless, it awarded Diop and similar scholars credit for posing these problems. Ryan A. Greenberg, Joseph H. (1950), "Studies in African Linguistic Classification: IV. Cheikh Anta Diop University (formerly known as the University of Dakar), in Dakar, Senegal, is named after him. Importantly it included not only francophone Africans, but English-speaking ones as well. Diop contributed an article to the journal: "Quand pourra-t-on parler d'une renaissance africaine" (When we will be able to speak of an African Renaissance?). Material solidarity – alleviating moral or material misery. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair"[33] Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). Partageons nos connaissances pour la propagation de la Pensée de Cheikh Anta Diop pour l'unité et le Développement de l'Afrique. [35] However, Diop's contribution was subject to the editorial comment that "The arguments put forward in this chapter have not been accepted by all the experts interested in the problem". Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD) Master linguistique , Analyse du discours. Keita and Kittles (1997); Keita (2005); Keita, "Further studies of crania"; Hiernaux J. He alleged his critics were using the narrowest possible definition of "Blacks" in order to differentiate various African groups such as Nubians into a European or Caucasoid racial zone. Pape Mor Diop. 27 (1970–1972), pp. Arbitrarily classifying Maasai, Ethiopians, Shillouk, Nubians, etc., as Caucasian is thus problematic, since all these peoples are northeast African populations and show normal variation well within the 85–90% specified by DNA analysis. [28] Diop's work has posed important questions about the cultural bias inherent in scientific research. He completed his thesis on pre-dynastic Egypt in 1954 but could not find a jury of examiners for it: he later published many of his ideas as the book Nations nègres et culture. Dakar, Senegal. It found that some European researchers had earlier tried to make Africans seem a special case, somehow different from the rest of the world's population flow and mix. In it he argues that only a united and federated African state will be able to overcome underdevelopment. Leiberman and Jackson 1995 "Race and Three Models of Human Origins". He said that their cultural, genetic and material links could not be defined away or separated into a regrouped set of racial clusters. By 1962 Diop's party working on the ideas enumerated in Black Africa: the economic and cultural basis for a federated state became a serious threat to the regime of then President Léopold Senghor. AFRICAN SPIRITUALITY To say that a Shillouk, a Dinka, or a Nouer is a Caucasoid is for an African as devoid of sense and scientific interest as would be, to a European, an attitude that maintained that a Greek or a Latin were not of the same race, Watch Video: Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop on African Origins of Humanity, A Brief Biography of an African Champion at Raceandhistory.com, Summary of Cheikh Anta Diop's Work (in French) at Ankhonline.com, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, Cheikh Anta Diop, The Pharaoh of Knowledge, Listen to interviews with Cheikh Anta Diop (in French) at Rufisque News. He declared that the peoples of the region were all Africans, and decried the "bizarre and dangerous myths" of previously biased scholarship, "marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism. (1978). Community See All. See more of Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar on Facebook. Diop said that he "acquired proficiency in such diverse disciplines as rationalism, dialectics, modern scientific techniques, prehistoric archeology and so on." Critics note that similar narrow definitions are not attempted with groups often classified as Caucasoid. Conversely, Ancient Egyptian may be more closely related to languages that cannot be classed as black and/or African than to many négro-africain languages. Gentle, idealistic, peaceful nature with a spirit of justice. "[90] This outlook was unlike many of the contemporary white writers he questioned. (F. Yurco "An Egyptological Review", 1996)[40], Diop's work has been subjected to criticism from a number of scholars. Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996, in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. It is named after the Senegalese physicist, historian and anthropologist Cheikh Anta Diop [1] [2] and has an enrollment of over 60,000. INTERVIEW WITH CHEIKH ANTA DIOP CSF: In Civilisation ou Barbarie you touched upon many areas that deal with the influence of Egypt on world. Many academics reject the term black, however, or use it exclusively in the sense of a sub-Saharan type. As Egyptologist Frank Yurco notes: Diop held that despite the Sahara, the genetic, physical and cultural elements of indigenous African peoples were both in place and always flowed in and out of Egypt, noting transmission routes via Nubia and the Sudan, and the earlier fertility of the Sahara. Seligman's views on direct diffusion from Egypt are not generally supported to-day,[52] but were current when Diop started to write and may explain his wish to show that Egyptian and Black Africa culture had a common source, rather than that Egyptian influence was one way. There is a contradiction here: all the anthropologists agree in stressing the sizable proportion of the Negroid element—almost a third and sometimes more—in the ethnic [i.e. Diop's family was part of the Mouride brotherhood, the only independent Muslim fraternity in Africa according to Diop. 79-104 in Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier, Chrétien, Jean-Pierre and, Perrot Claude-Hélène (eds). Obenga, Théophile. [83] Obenga expressly rejected Greenberg's division of most African languages into the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic families, treating all African languages except the Khoisan languages and Berber as a single unit, négro-africain. Literature emphasizes novel tales, fables and comedy. [62] Greenberg’s complete reclassification of the non-intrusive languages of Africa into four families and many sub-families placed Wolof in the West Atlantic sub-family of the Niger-Congo languages family,[63][64] and he rejected earlier attempts to argue that the languages of negro Africa comprise a genetic unity and derived from dialects spoken around Egypt from 1000 B.C. These, he held, formed part of a tapestry that laid the basis for African cultural unity, which could assist in throwing off colonialism. He was keenly aware of the difficulties that such a scientific effort would entail and warned that "It was particularly necessary to avoid the pitfall of facility. He acknowledged the existence of "mixed" peoples over the course of Egyptian history but also argued for indigeous variants already in situ as opposed to massive insertions of Hamites, Mediterraneans, Semites or Cascasoids into ancient groupings. Diop's first work translated into English, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, was published in 1974. [6], Cultural anthropology, Archaeology, Social anthropology, Sociology, History, Portugal, World War II, Tianjin, Spain, Goa, Sudan, Egypt, South Africa, Algeria, Morocco, Serer people, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Dakar, Serer religion, Egypt, Near East, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Roman Empire, Ancient Egyptian religion, Africa, Pan-Africanism, Politics, American Civil War, Discrimination, Senegal, World Bank, Benin, History, United States, African diaspora, Education, Afrocentrism, Sierra Leone, Arab, Republic of the Congo, Pan-Africanism, Languages of Africa, San Francisco State University, Brazzaville, Pan-Africanism, Literature, Wole Soyinka, Unesco, Pablo Picasso. [78] Diop has endorsed the work of Obenga. [59] Under this approach, racial categories such as "Blacks" or "Caucasoids" are discarded in favor of localized populations showing a range of physical variation. that when the data are looked at in toto, without the clustering manipulation and selective exclusions above, then a more accurate and realistic picture emerges of African diversity. Reproduction Date: Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a Afrocentric[1] historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. The current structure of the Egyptian population may be the result of further influence of neighbouring populations on this ancestral population[109], Diop disputed sweeping definitions of mixed races in relation to African populations, particularly when associated with the Nile Valley. Some scholars draw heavily from Diop's groundbreaking work,[7] while others in the Western academic world do not accept his theories. cit. (1970-1972), Égyptien ancien et négro-africain, pp. No videos yet! UNESCO, (1978). Idea of peace, justice, goodness and optimism. Log In. [51], Diop's arguments to place Egypt in the cultural and genetic context of Africa met a wide range of condemnation and rejection. He did not publish his work in subject-specific journals with an independent editorial board that practiced the system of peer review. [50] Modern physical anthropologists also question splitting of peoples into racial zones. Hubert Jaouen. Defenders maintain that Diop's critics routinely misrepresent his views, typically defining negroes as a 'true' type south of the Sahara to cast doubt on his work,[88] Questions such as "Were the ancient Egyptians black?" Keita, "Further studies of crania", op. Studies of some inhabitants of Gurna, a population with an ancient cultural history, in Upper Egypt, illustrate the point. See S.O.Y. Modern linguistic analysis places the origin of the Afro-Asiatic languages in northeast Africa, and plausibly puts the origin of the Egyptian language in the Nile valley, between the apex of the Delta and the First of the Cataracts of the Nile.[94].