Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo. Diop was subsequently arrested and thrown in jail where he nearly died. He ultimately translated parts of Einstein's Theory of Relativity into his native Wolof. This research has examined the ancient Badarian group, finding not only cultural and material linkages with those further south but physical correlations as well, including a southern modal cranial metric phentoype indicative of the Tropical African in the well-known Badarian group. Mixed-race theories have also been challenged by contemporary scholars in relation to African genetic diversity. [7][8] According to Marnie Hughes-Warrington, Diop's works were criticised by leading French Africanists, but they (and later critics) noted the value of his works for the generation of a "politically useful mythology", that would promote African unity. He established and was the director of the radiocarbon laboratory at the IFAN (Institut Fondamental de l'Afrique Noire). John G. Jackson and Runoko Rashidi, Introduction To African Civilizations (Citadel: 2001), ISBN 0-8065-2189-9, pp. However, from the 1930s archaeologists and historians re-discovered such past African achievements as Great Zimbabwe, and from the 1940s linguists started to demonstrate the flaws in the hypothesis. Brown and Armelagos, op. He asserted that archaeological and anthropological evidence supported his view that Pharaohs were of Negroid origin. [48] As regards the key Badarian group, a 2005 study by anthropologist S. O. Y. Keita of Badarian crania in predynastic upper Egypt found that the predynastic Badarian series clusters much closer with the tropical African series than European samples. [25], After the B.M.S. [7] Toyin Falola has called Diop's work "passionate, combative, and revisionist". Article. Obenga, Théophile (1992), "Le 'chamito-sémitique' n'existe pas". Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. WHEBN0001981069 Perhaps Diop's most notable idea is his insistence in placing Nile Valley peoples in their local and African context, drawing a picture of a stable, ancient population deriving much of its genetic inheritance from that context, as opposed to attempts to split, cluster, subdivide, define and regroup them into other contexts. In it he argues that only a united and federated African state will be able to overcome underdevelopment. [91] Since he struggled against how racial classifications were used by the European academy in relation to African peoples, much of his work has a strong 'race-flavored' tint. [87] Diop has endorsed the work of Obenga. "[27], Diop published his technique and methodology for a melanin dosage test in the Bulletin of Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire. Diop disputed sweeping definitions of mixed races in relation to African populations, particularly when associated with the Nile Valley. The present of aquiline features for example, may not be necessarily a result of race mixture with Caucasoids, but simply another local population variant in situ. Publication date 1984 Usage Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Topics kemet,uhem mesut,cheikh anta diop Language French. His cultural theory attempted to show that Egypt was part of the African environment as opposed to incorporating it into Mediterranean or Middle Eastern venues. that when the data are looked at in toto, without the clustering manipulation and selective exclusions above, then a more accurate and realistic picture emerges of African diversity. He said that their cultural, genetic and material links could not be defined away or separated into a regrouped set of racial clusters. ... Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. "The Earliest Semitic Society: Linguistic Data", Interview conducted by Charles Finch III in Dakar on behalf of the. (24) Jean Vercoutter at the 1974 UNESCO conference. Obenga, Théophile. Histoire universelle de Diodore de Sicile . Craniometric Affinities Considered With Other Data", S. O. Y. Keita. Sanders, Edith R. (1969), The Hamitic Hypothesis; pp. "University Cheikh Anta Diop", Encyclopædia Britannica. Experience. He acknowledged the existence of "mixed" peoples over the course of African history, writing that Egyptians and Jews were the product of crossbreeding. Seligman's views on direct diffusion from Egypt are not generally supported to-day,[61] but were current when Diop started to write and may explain his wish to show that Egyptian and Black Africa culture had a common source, rather than that Egyptian influence was one way. 7 February 1986. This has shown that most of human genetic variation (some 85–90%) occurs within localized population groups, and that race only can account for 6–10% of the variation. cit. Hamito-Semitic". The party was shortly thereafter banned for opposing Senghor's efforts to consolidate power in his own hands. ESCP Business School - Paris. AFRICAN SPIRITUALITY There are common patterns such as circumcision, matriarchy etc., but whether these are part of a unique, gentler, more positive "Southern cradle" of peoples, versus a more grasping, patriarchal-flavored "Northern cradle" are considered problematic[weasel words] by many scholars,[who?] ( 1738 ) . His cultural theory attempted to show that Egypt was part of the African environment as opposed to incorporating it into Mediterranean or Middle Eastern venues. Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD) Master linguistique , Analyse du discours. He proposed that African culture should be rebuilt on the basis of ancient Egypt, in the same way that European culture was built upon the legacies of ancient Greece and Rome. Upcoming QS Events. Ndigi, Oum (1997–1998), "Les Basa du Cameroun et l'antiquité pharaonique égypto-nubienne". They hold that such splitting is arbitrary insertion of data into pre-determined pigeonholes and the selective grouping of samples. "[90] This outlook was unlike many of the contemporary white writers he questioned. 22,005 people follow this. [35] However, Diop's contribution was subject to the editorial comment that "The arguments put forward in this chapter have not been accepted by all the experts interested in the problem". Article Id: Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996, in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. (2003-2004), "L'origine des Peuls : les principales thèses confrontées aux traditions africaines et à l'égyptologie". [80] Tourneax notes that Diop accused previous linguists of being unscientific and obscuring the truth. Robert O. Collins, a former history professor at Throughout history, it has been the phenotype which has been at issue, we mustn't lose sight of this fact. Barbujani, et al., "Patterns of Human Diversity, within and among Continents, Inferred from Biallelic DNA Polymorphisms". Robert O. Collins, a former historical professor at University of California, Santa Barbara, and James M. Burns, a professor in history at Clemson University, have both referred to Diop's writings of Ancient Egypt and his theories, entailing to it as "revisionist". Portrait de Cheikh Anta Diop - Duration: 2 ... Droit Libre TV 122,668 views. [49], Diop's theory on variability is also supported by a number of scholars mapping human genes using modern DNA analysis. Diop's work was greatly controversial during his lifetime and has been criticized by a number of scholars. At a UNESCO colloquium in Athens in 1981, he asserted: "I don't like to use the notion of race (which does not exist)... We must not attach an obsessional importance to it. And this appearance corresponds to something which makes us say that Europe is peopled by white people, Africa is peopled by black people, and Asia is people by yellow people. [2] His work was greatly controversial and throughout his career, Diop argued that there was a shared cultural continuity across African peoples that was more important than the varied development of different ethnic groups shown by differences among languages and cultures over time. Cheikh Anta Diop (ed.) [82] Diop's own Wolof studies were examined by Russell Schuh, a specialist in the Chadic languages, who found little resemblance or connection between many of the Wolof etymologies cited by Diop and Egyptian, of the type that are found when comparing Wolof to a know related language like Fula. Finally, Schur argued that, if the human species originated in Africa and it created human language, then all human languages have an African origin and are therefore related. Diop's concept was of a fundamentally Black population that incorporated new elements over time, rather than mixed-race populations crossing arbitrarily assigned racial zones. Rousseau, Madeleine and Cheikh Anta Diop (1948), "1848 Abolition de l'esclavage - 1948 evidence de la culture nègre". Critics note that similar narrow definitions are not attempted with groups often classified as Caucasoid. He was general secretary of the RDA students in Paris from 1950 to 1953. Diop never asserted, as some claim, that all of Africa follows an Egyptian cultural model. Diop consistently held that Africans could not be pigeonholed into a rigid type that existed somewhere south of the Sahara, but they varied widely in skin color, facial shape, hair type, height, and a number of additional factors, just like other human populations. He ultimately translated parts of Einstein's Theory of Relativity into his native Wolof. This is considered to be an indigenous development based on microevolutionary principles (climate adaptation, drift and selection) and not the movement of large numbers of outside peoples into Egypt. [44] Based on Coon's work, the Hamitic Hypothesis held that most advanced progress or cultural development in Africa was due to the invasions of mysterious Caucasoid Hamites. Barbujani, et al., "Patterns of Human Diversity, within and among Continents, Inferred from Biallelic DNA Polymorphisms". Those who have followed us in our efforts for more than 20 years know now that this was not the case and that this fear remained unfounded. In 1951 he registered a second thesis title "Who were the pre-dynastic Egyptians" under Professor Marcel Griaule. [16] He said that the Egyptian language and culture had later been spread to West Africa. He held that this was both hypocrisy and bad scholarship, that ignored the wide range of indigenous variability of African peoples.[35]. He holds that the range of peoples and phenotypes under the designation "negre" included those with a wide range of physical variability, from light brown skin and aquiline noses to jet black skin and frizzy hair, well within the diversity of peoples of the Nilotic region. No places to show. Hubert … [11] He said that the Egyptian language and culture had later been spread to West Africa. 13-175. Closed Now. Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. They hold that such splitting is arbitrary insertion of data into pre-determined pigeonholes and the selective grouping of samples. Craniometric Affinities Considered With Other Data", S. O. Y. Keita. Demba Sy, Papa, "L'itinéraire Politique de Cheikh Anta Diop". The party was shortly thereafter banned for opposing Senghor's efforts to consolidate power in his own hands. [24] His forceful assertions that the original population of the Nile Delta was black and that Egyptians remained black-skinned until Egypt lost its independence, "was criticized by many participants". [32], The Swiss archaeologist Charles Bonnet's discoveries at the site of Kerma shed some light on the theories of Diop. Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. [12][13], In 1948 Diop edited with Madeleine Rousseau, a professor of art history, a special edition of the journal Musée vivant, published by the Association populaire des amis des musées (APAM). The reviewers found that some researchers seemed to have shifted their categories and methods to maintain this "special case" outlook. While acknowledging the common genetic inheritance of all humankind and common evolutionary threads, Diop identified a black phenotype, stretching from India, to Australia to Africa, with physical similarities in terms of dark skin and a number of other characteristics. As Egyptologist Frank Yurco notes: Diop held that despite the Sahara, the genetic, physical and cultural elements of indigenous African peoples were both in place and always flowed in and out of Egypt, noting transmission routes via Nubia and the Sudan, and the earlier fertility of the Sahara. To say that a Shillouk, a Dinka, or a Nouer is a Caucasoid is for an African as devoid of sense and scientific interest as would be, to a European, an attitude that maintained that a Greek or a Latin were not of the same race, Critics of Diop cite a 1993 study that found the ancient Egyptians to be more related to North African, Somali, European, Nubian and, more remotely, Indian populations, than to Sub-Saharan Africans. These, he held, formed part of a tapestry that laid the basis for African cultural unity, which could assist in throwing off colonialism. Schuh, Russell G. (1997), "The Use and Misuse of language in the study of African history", p. 7. Ryan A. He proposed that African culture should be rebuilt on the basis of ancient Egypt, in the same way that European culture was built upon the legacies of ancient Greece and Rome. These concepts are laid out in Diop's Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in Culture and Development, 1946-1960,[54] and The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity,,[55][56] These concepts can be summarized as follows: Diop attempted to demonstrate that the African peoples shared certain commonalities, including language roots and other cultural elements like regicide, circumcision, totems, etc. Cheikh Anta Diop was an Afrocentric historian, anthropologist, physicist and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. Test par la mélanine," Diop described the technique used to determine the melanin content of Egyptian mummies. [22] He singled out the contradiction of "the African historian who evades the problem of Egypt". Keita and Kittles (1999) argue that modern DNA analysis points to the need for more emphasis on clinal variation and gradations that are more than adequate to explain differences between peoples rather than pre-conceived racial clusters. [88] Diop by contrast in his African Origin of Civilization,[89] argues against the European stereotypical conception. Idea of peace, justice, goodness and optimism. Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentar... S. O. Y. Keita, "Royal incest and Diffusion in Africa", National Democratic Rally (Senegal) Politicians, WorldHeritage articles needing clarification from August 2015, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009, National Democratic Rally (Senegal) politicians. 27 (1970-1972), pp. cit. S. Ademola Ajayi, "Cheikh Anta Diop" in Kevin Shillington (ed.). [110] Diop also argued for indigenous variants already in situ as opposed to massive insertions of Hamites, Mediterraneans, Semites or Cascasoids into ancient groupings. Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre- colonial African culture. Doctorat de sociologie, Sociologie. He gained his first degree (licence) in philosophy in 1948, then enrolled in the Faculty of Sciences, receiving two diplomas in chemistry in 1950. Diop attempted to demonstrate that the African peoples shared certain commonalities, including language roots and other cultural elements like regicide, circumcision, totems, etc. Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in the reality of the Negro world. Coon used racial rankings of inferiority and superiority, defined "true Blacks" as only those of cultures south of the Sahara, and grouped some Africans with advanced cultures with Caucasian clusters. Seligman's views on direct diffusion from Egypt are not generally supported to-day,[52] but were current when Diop started to write and may explain his wish to show that Egyptian and Black Africa culture had a common source, rather than that Egyptian influence was one way. The present of aquiline features for example, may not be necessarily a result of race mixture with Caucasoids, but simply another local population variant in situ. APAM had been set up in 1936 by people on the political left wing to bring culture to wider audiences. that when the data are looked at in toto, without the clustering manipulation and selective exclusions above, then a more accurate and realistic picture emerges of African diversity. Diop's first work translated into English, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, was published in 1974. For instance, Diop suggested that the uses of terminology like "Mediterranean" or "Middle Eastern", or statistically classifying all who did not meet the "true" Black stereotype as some other race, were all attempts to use race to differentiate among African peoples. He did not believe that such a population needed to be arbitrarily split into tribal or racial clusters. Diop repudiated racism or supremacist theories, arguing for a more balanced view of African history than he felt it was getting during his era. Froment, Alain, "Origine et évolution de l'homme dans la pensée de Cheikh Anta Diop: une analyse critique", Bruce Trigger, 'Nubian, Negro, Black, Nilotic? Diop's family was part of the Mouride brotherhood, the only independent Muslim fraternity in Africa according to Diop. [25] Diop also wrote a chapter entitled "Origin of the ancient Egyptians", in the UNESCO General History of Africa. Diop's concept was of a fundamentally Black population that incorporated new elements over time, rather than mixed-race populations crossing arbitrarily assigned racial zones. Some scholars draw heavily from Diop's groundbreaking work,[4] while others in the Western academic world do not accept his theories. Ngom, Gilbert (1993), "La parenté génétique entre l’egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines moderns: L’exemple du duala". The new topics did not relate to ancient Egypt but were concerned with the forms of organisation of African and European societies and how they evolved. It could seem to tempting to delude the masses engaged in a struggle for national independence by taking liberties with scientific truth, by unveiling a mythical, embellished past. [93][94], Diop's fundamental criticism of scholarship on the African peoples was that classification schemes pigeonholed them into categories defined as narrowly as possible, while expanding definitions of Caucasoid groupings as broadly as possible. This same modern scholarship however in turn challenges aspects of Diop's work, particularly his notions of a worldwide black phenotype. One of Diop's most controversial issues centers on the definition of who is a true Black person. Prince Dika-Akwa nya Bonambéla (ed.) Diop, inspired by the efforts of Aimé Césaire toward these ends, but not being a literary man himself, took up the call to rebuild the African personality from a strictly scientific, socio-historical perspective. [95] In an interview in 1985, Diop argued that race was a relevant category and that phenotype or physical appearance is what matters in historic social relations. 79–104 in Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier, Chrétien, Jean-Pierre and, Perrot Claude-Hélène (eds). Diop's presentation of his concepts at the Cairo UNESCO symposium on "The peopling of ancient Egypt and the deciphering of the Meroitic script", in 1974, argued that there were inconsistencies and contradictions in the way African data was handled. The same method was applied by four of Diop’s collaborators to Mbosi,[69] Duala,[70] Basa,[71] Fula[72][73] and a few other languages. Ferocious, warlike nature with spirit of survival. The entire region shows a basic unity based on both the Nile and Sahara, and cannot be arbitrarily diced up into pre-assigned racial zones. [105] Diop's book "Civilization or Barbarism" was summarized as Afrocentric pseudohistory by academic and author Robert Todd Carroll. He claimed this put African historical linguistics on a secure basis for the first time. [90] Tourneux's main criticisms are that many words in the lists used to make comparisons may have been loaned from unrelated languages (including modern Arabic), many of the claimed resemblances are far-fetched and that, when Diop transliterated Wolof words on the principles applied to Ancient Egyptian writings, he distorted them.[91].