A staunch supporter of an Augustinian view of the mystery of the Christian faith, St Bernard was fiercely opposed to ‘rationalistic’ views of Christianity. After his death a cult of St Bernard rapidly developed. The European importance of Bernard, however, began with the death of Honorius (1130) and the disputed election that followed. He also silenced the final supporters who sustained the schism. There are many who believe that it was his championship of the Templars that made their survival possible. Read his meditations on prayer and God’s love. Pope Innocent II died in the year 1143. But once out of Bernard's presence, he reneged. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. He had a special devotion to the Virgin Mary, and he later wrote several works about the Queen of Heaven.[4]. Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes ... Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.[4]. This Bernard named Claire Vallée, or Clairvaux, on 25 June 1115, and the names of Bernard and Clairvaux soon became inseparable. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. Lothair II became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. This man had been a noviciate of St Bernard at Clairvaux and was, in all respects, St Bernard’s own man. [18], There was at first virtually no popular enthusiasm for the crusade as there had been in 1095. Principal penseur du courant cistercien, l'abbé Bernard de Clairvaux a largement influencé ses contemporains au XIIe siècle. An Eng. Patronage. On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism arose in the church. He was a staunch supporter of the Virgin Mary, a visionary and a man who had a profound belief in an early and very ‘Culdean’ form of Christianity. Bernard is Dante Alighieri's last guide, in Divine Comedy, as he travels through the Empyrean. [9], Again reproaches arose against Bernard and he was denounced, even in Rome. [6], So great was his reputation that princes and Popes sought his advice, and even the enemies of the Church admired the holiness of his life and the greatness of his writings. Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. This action gave rise to a quarrel between the White Monks and the Black Monks which lasted 20 years. ST BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX (1090-1153), De precepto et dispensatione and other works, in Latin, DECORATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. This caused the pope to be recognized by all the great powers. Christians had been defeated at the Siege of Edessa and most of the county had fallen into the hands of the Seljuk Turks. James Meeker Ludlow describes the scene romantically in his book The Age of the Crusades: A large platform was erected on a hill outside the city. Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist(1090 – August 20, 1153) was a Frankish abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercianmonastic order. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations and around this time he thought of retiring from the world and living a life of solitude and prayer. Three years later, Bernard was sent with a band of twelve monks to found a new house at Vallée d'Absinthe,[6] in the Diocese of Langres. Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, and the King of France also sent ambassadors. This he did, almost certainly, at the behest of Bernard and possibly as a result of promises he had made to this end at the time Bernard showed him the support which led to the Vatican. At the time of St Bernard’s arrival the abbey was under the guiding hand of Stephen, later St Stephen Harding, an Englishman. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[21]. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. bernard was a cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of clairvaux, and one of the most influential churchmen of his time | it is said that his mother aleth exerted a virtuous influence on him only second to that of monica on st augustine | after her death in 1107 he began his 'long path to complete conversion', turning from his literary education to a life of renunciation and solitude || juan … His parents were Tescelin, lord of Fontaines, and Aleth of Montbard, both belonging to the highest nobility of Burgundy. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. St. Bernard's Parish Hall. hymns. Bernard’s influence upon the princes, the clergy, and the people of his age was most remarkable. It is a fact that the Templars venerated St Bernard from that moment on, until their own demise in 1307. After the council, the bishop of Verdun was deposed. About the same time he wrote his work on Grace and Free Will. Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. The bishops made Bernard secretary of the council, and charged him with drawing up the synodal statutes. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Bernard “Bishop of” Clairvaux (1091–1153), Find a Grave Memorial no. Another time, while he slept in an inn, a prostitute was introduced naked beside him, and he saved his chastity by running. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, was a monk who spent most of his time out of the cloister, a spiritual man who seemed always embroiled in politics and a man of peace who convinced thousands to fight and die for their faith. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. He recalled the city of Milan to obedience to the pope as they had followed the deposed Anselm V, Archbishop of Milan. Bernard's informal political influence was further enhanced with the election of Pope Eugenius III, one of Bernard's former pupils. St. Bernard died during the year of 1153 in Clairvaux, France. [12] Bernard then denounced Abelard to the pope and cardinals of the Curia. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. He then went with him into Italy and reconciled Pisa with Genoa, and Milan with the pope. Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, who was a friend of Bernard's. For this reason, the Black Monks attempted to make it appear that the rules of the new order were impracticable. Much could be written about the ‘nature’ of St Bernard. Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". "[27], Bernard's theology and Mariology continue to be of major importance, particularly within the Cistercian and Trappist orders. [17] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. All Public Masses in the Archdiocese of Toronto Are Temporarily Cancelled. Actually St Bernard contributed to condemning certain teachings of Abelard at the Provincial Synod of Sens in 1140 and went so far as to request Pope Innocent II's intervention. This abbey was the first Cistercian monastery and had been set up somewhat earlier by a small band of dissident monks from Molesmes. At his death, they numbered 343. Construction of the Monastery of St. Bernard de Clairvaux was begun in the year 1133 AD in Sacramenia, near Segovia in northern Spain. His father, a knight named Tecelin, perished on crusade; and his mother Aleth, a daughter of the noble house of Mon-Bar, and a woman distinguished for her piety, died while Bernard was yet a boy. Although the councils of Étampes, Würzburg, Clermont, and Rheims all supported Innocent, large portions of the Christian world still supported Anacletus. Moved by his burning words, many Christians embarked for the Holy Land, but the crusade ended in miserable failure.[6]. The same year Bernard was again at the Council of Reims at the side of Innocent II. In the first part, he proved himself innocent of the charges of Cluny and in the second he gave his reasons for his counterattacks. St Bernard enters history in an indisputable sense at the age of 23 years, when together with a very large group of his brothers, cousins and maybe other kin, (probably between 25 and 30) he rode into the abbey of Citeaux, Dijon. by S. J. Eales of the Life and Works of St. Bernard Clairvaux from the ed. Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlin… The monks of the abbey of Cluny were unhappy to see Cîteaux take the lead role among the religious orders of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1144 Eugene III commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade[6] and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade. Born in 1090, at Fontaines, near Dijon, France; died at Clairvaux, 21 August, 1153. Nevertheless, the monastery at Clairvaux flourished as more and more disciples sought to place themselves under the leadership of St. Bernard. These cookies do not store any personal information. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on 14 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Pope Innocent II and Antipope Anacletus II. Abbey mosaic of St. Bernard. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. The question appears to be easily answered for in the small Templar type Church in St Bernard’s birthplace there is a marble plaque that states the Church was built by St Bernard’s mother in thanks for the safe return of her husband from the Crusade. Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. Saint Bernard de Clairvaux French abbot. In the conclaveAnacletus IIwas elected by a narrow mnargin, but many influential cardinals favored the contender, Pope Innocent … St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died August 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized January 18, 1174; feast day August 20), Cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. The movement found an ardent and powerful advocate in Peter Abelard. In addition to these victories, Bernard also had his trials. [8] In 1118 Trois-Fontaines Abbey was founded in the diocese of Châlons; in 1119 Fontenay Abbey in the Diocese of Autun; and in 1121 Foigny Abbey near Vervins, in the diocese of Laon. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. The son of a knight and vassal of the duke of Burgundy who perished in the first crusade, Bernard may have felt for a time the temptations of a military career, but the influence of a pious mother and his own inclinations towards a life of meditation and study led him to the cloister. In opposition to the rational approach to divine understanding that the scholastics adopted, Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henri Sanglier, archbishop of Sens and Stephen of Senlis, bishop of Paris. This letter made a positive impression on Harmeric, and in the Vatican. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. [28] He was the first Cistercian monk placed on the calendar of saints and was canonized by Alexander III 18 January 1174. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. His texts are prescribed readings in Cistercian congregations. [12] Bernard lobbied the prelates on the evening before the debate, swaying many of them to his view. [13], News came at this time from the Holy Land that alarmed Christendom. Bernard’s influence grew within the established Church of his day. Bernard's influence was soon felt in provincial affairs. [c] Bernard led to the foundation of 163 monasteries in different parts of Europe. On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". Whether an ‘intention’ to create an Order of the Templar sort existed prior to the life of St Bernard himself is a … Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force, replying: Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? The Templars were officially declared to be a monastic order under the protection of Church in Troyes in 1139. [5], Bernard had occupied himself in sending bands of monks from his overcrowded monastery into Germany, Sweden, England, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy. It is also true to say that if Citeaux remained the ‘head’ of the Cistercian movement during the life of St Bernard, Clairvaux lay at its heart. St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church (Spanish: Monasterio Español de Sacramenia) is a medieval Spanish monastery cloister which was built in the town of Sacramenia in Segovia, Spain, in the 12th century but dismantled in the 20th century and shipped to New York City in the United States. [4], In the year 1119, Bernard was present at the first general chapter of the order convoked by Stephen of Cîteaux. Bernard of Clairvaux, saint, abbot, and doctor, fills one of the most conspicuous positions in the history of the middle ages. He decided in favour of Innocent II. It is suggested that Clairvaux was peopled with all manner of scholars, some of whom may well have been Jewish scribes. The Mission of St. John the Divine became the Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux, named in honor of the great Saint who had been a leading influence among the Cistercians 847 years ago, and whose feast day is commemorated on August 20. The din of arms, the danger, the labors, the fatigues of war, are the penances that God now imposes upon you. The abbey became too small for its members and it was necessary to send out bands to found new houses. Tens of thousands heard his powerful preaching, and he personally attracted and helped many hundreds of men to follow a call to monastic life. [citation needed], John Calvin quotes Bernard several times[22] in support of the doctrine of Sola Fide,[23] which Martin Luther described as the article upon which the church stands or falls. There is not left one man to seven women, and everywhere there are widows to still-living husbands. Bernard was the third of seven children, six of whom were sons. Many letters, treatises, and other works, falsely attributed to him survive, and are now referred to as works by pseudo-Bernard. St Bernard died in Clairvaux on August 20th 1153, a date that would soon become his feast day, for St Bernard was canonised within a few short years of his death. © 1997-2020 TemplarHistory.com | Managed by Pawn Marketing & Publishing Inc. [18][19] Others followed his example and he and his helpers were supposedly still producing crosses as night fell. [6] His father and all his brothers entered Clairvaux to pursue religious life, leaving only Humbeline, his sister, in the secular world. After that, Bernard spent most of his time in Italy persuading the Italians to pledge allegiance to Innocent. There Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. Bernard went further and insisted that Pope Innocent II recognised this infant order as being solely under the authority of the Pope and no other temporal or ecclesiastical authority. His father, Tecelin, or Tesselin, a knight of great bravery, was the friend and vassal of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry of Lausanne, a former Cluniac monk, had adopted the teachings of the Petrobrusians, followers of Peter of Bruys and spread them in a modified form after Peter's death. The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. He appears to have received a good, standard education, at Chatillon-sur-Seine, which fitted him, most probably, for a life in the Church, which, of course, is exactly the direction he eventually took.