His sermons, from which there are many excerpts in the Breviary, are conspicuous for genuine emotion and spiritual unction. "[27], Bernard's theology and Mariology continue to be of major importance, particularly within the Cistercian and Trappist orders. [10], In 1132, Bernard accompanied Innocent II into Italy, and at Cluny the pope abolished the dues which Clairvaux used to pay to that abbey. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them. About the same time he wrote his work on Grace and Free Will. 7 The Mystical Theology ofSaint Bernard(LondonShee: d & Ward, 1940)viii; Ulrich Köpf, Religiöse Erfahrung in der Theologie Bernhards von Clairvaux (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, e1980) 8J;. This led for a time to the exaltation of human reason and rationalism. [5], In 1098 Robert of Molesme had founded Cîteaux Abbey, near Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St Benedict in all its rigour. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by Malachy, Primate of All Ireland, and a very close friendship formed between them. He preached at the Council of Vézelay (1146) to recruit for the Second Crusade. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. Clothe yourselves in sackcloth, but also cover yourselves with your impenetrable bucklers. In 1115 Harding appointed him to lead a small group of monks to establish a monastery at Clairvaux, on the borders of Burgundy and Champagne. [4], Towards the close of the 11th century, a spirit of independence flourished within schools of philosophy and theology. All Public Masses in the Archdiocese of Toronto Are Temporarily Cancelled. Download books for free. His two successors, Pope Celestine II and Pope Lucius II, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, and known thereafter as Eugene III, raised to the Chair of Saint Peter. [5], Bernard had occupied himself in sending bands of monks from his overcrowded monastery into Germany, Sweden, England, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. The Library of the Cistercian Abbey of Clairvaux at the time of Pierre de Virey (1472) PART A – ESSENTIAL INFORMATION 1. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."[4]. Bernard's entry at Catholic Encyclopedia This page … His influence led Alexander III to launch reforms that led to the establishment of canon law. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. Bernard is Dante Alighieri's last guide, in Divine Comedy, as he travels through the Empyrean. In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, (born 1090, probably Fontaine-les-Dijon, near Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died August 20, 1153, Clairvaux, Champagne; canonized January 18, 1174; feast day August 20), Cistercian monk and mystic, founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. €94 The death of his contemporaries served as a warning to Bernard of his own approaching end. By the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, England, Germany, Portugal, Castile, and Aragon supported Pope Innocent II; however, most of Italy, southern France, and Sicily, with the Latin patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem supported Antipope Anacletus II. Bernard of Clairvaux (French saint, Cistercian abbot, and writer, 1090-1153) He had a spe­cial de­vo­tion to the Blessed Vir­gin, and there is no one who speaks more sub­lime­ly of the Queen of Heav­en. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae, representing the combined will of earth and heaven, https://books.google.com/books?id=kkoJAQAAIAAJ, List of Latin nicknames of the Middle Ages: Doctors in theology, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint archive, "Monuments historiques : Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard", "Sermon XIII: The Believers Concern, to pray for Faith", Audio on the life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Database with all known medieval representations of Bernard, "Here Followeth the Life of St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor", "Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard", Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Abbot, Doctor of the Church-1153, Lewis E 26 De consideratione (On Consideration) at OPenn, MS 484/11 Super cantica canticorum at OPenn, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_of_Clairvaux&oldid=996407825, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 12:18. St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church is a medieval Spanish monastery cloister which was built in the town of Sacramenia in Segovia, Spain, in the 12th century but dismantled in the 20th century and shipped to New York City in the United States. After persuading Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit William X, Duke of Aquitaine. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. Primitive Rule of the Templars, Paperback by Clairvaux, Bernard De; Payens, Hugues De, ISBN 1503149218, ISBN-13 9781503149212, Brand New, Free shipping This is the original, primitive rule of the Templars. He entered the Cîteaux community in 1112, and from then until 1115 he cultivated his spiritual and theological studies. [4], In the year 1128 AD, Bernard participated in the Council of Troyes, which had been convoked by Pope Honorius II, and was presided over by Cardinal Matthew of Albano. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. Illustrious persons were buried at Clairvaux in the livery of the poor of Christ, among them Henry of France, brother of King Louis VII; Alexander of Cologne, who was later one of the successors of St. Bernard of Clairvaux; Henry Murdach who became Abbot of Vauclair and later Archbishop of York; Philip, Archdeacon of Liège, etc. Bernard's influence was soon felt in provincial affairs. After the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade. … She, I say, is that shining and brilliant star, needed so much, set in place above life’s great and spacious sea, glittering with merits, all aglow with examples for our imitation. In the meantime Cluny established a reform, and Abbot Suger, the minister of Louis VI of France, was converted by the Apology of Bernard. Both his parents were exceptional models of virtue. Alert. Leclercq, "Les Ecrits de Geoffrod'Auxerre,y Revue" bénédictine 62 [1952] 282). Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. Louis VI convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes, and Bernard, summoned there by consent of the bishops, was chosen to judge between the rival popes. [18][19] Others followed his example and he and his helpers were supposedly still producing crosses as night fell. [17] The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states were threatened with similar disaster. Towards the end of 1134, he made a second journey into Aquitaine, where William X had relapsed into schism. [6] In 1113 Stephen Harding had just succeeded Alberic as third Abbot of Cîteaux when Bernard and thirty other young noblemen of Burgundy sought admission into the monastery. Omissions? author of “henry viii. The influence of the Abbot of Clairvaux was soon felt in provincial affairs. Bernard took his time in terminating his domestic affairs and in persuading his brothers and some 25 companions to join him. However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor. Bernard of Clairvaux on the Life of the Mind, John R. Sommerfeldt, Newman Press (2004) ISBN 0809142031 ISBN 9780809142033, p. 67 „I rejoiced so greatly when I heard of your answer in the case of some who seemed to be filled with extravagant ambition The whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138. However, Abelard continued to develop his teachings, which were controversial in some quarters. There is perhaps no better way to enjoy Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux than by booking a nearby Cloisters of the Monastery of Saint Bernard de Clairvaux hotel! [29] Pope Pius VIII bestowed on him the title "Doctor of the Church". In June 1145, Bernard traveled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy. Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. (Of Mary, never enough!) Amour sacré, fin’amor: Bernard de Clairvaux et les troubadours.Philosophes médiévaux 60. [31], The Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard, a collection of buildings dating from the 12th, 17th and 19th centuries, is dedicated to Bernard and stands in his birthplace of Fontaine-lès-Dijon.[32]. He hastened to terminate his worldly life and restore discipline in his monastery. [26], Bernard "noted centuries ago: the people who are their own spiritual directors have fools for disciples. Some of these, at the command of Innocent II, took possession of Tre Fontane Abbey, from which Eugene III was chosen in 1145. Lothair II became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. The first to die was Suger in 1152, of whom Bernard wrote to Eugene III, "If there is any precious vase adorning the palace of the King of Kings it is the soul of the venerable Suger". King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. The next day, after Bernard made his opening statement, Abelard decided to retire without attempting to answer. [4] These include: Burgundian saint, abbot and theologian (1090-1153). He then returned to Clairvaux. S-a născut într-o familie de nobili din nord estul ținutului Bourgogne în localitatea Fontaine, lângă Dijon. The movement found an ardent and powerful advocate in Peter Abelard. [25], One day, to cool down his lustful temptation, Bernard threw himself into ice-cold water. He could claim a form of higher knowledge that is the complement and fruition of faith and that reaches completion in prayer and contemplation. Gerard of Clairvaux, Bernard's older brother, became the cellarer of Citeaux. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. On the death of Honorius II, which occurred on 14 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church by the election of two popes, Pope Innocent II and Antipope Anacletus II. Biografie. [12] The council found in favour of Bernard and their judgment was confirmed by the pope. It was eventually reassembled at 16711 West Dixie Highway, North Miami Beach, Florida, where it is now an Episcopal church and tourist attraction called Ancient Spanish … Born of Burgundian landowning aristocracy, Bernard grew up in a family of five brothers and one sister. abbot president of the english benedictine congregation . Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". The regimen was so austere that Bernard became ill, and only the influence of his friend William of Champeaux and the authority of the general chapter could make him mitigate the austerities. Bernard's great de­sire was to excel in lit­er­a­ture in order to take up the study of Sa­cred Scrip­ture, which later on be­came, as it were, his own tongue. Around this time, he praised them in his Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae. Soon afterwards, Henry of Lausanne was arrested, brought before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. They are characterized by repetition of references to the Church Fathers and by the use of analogues, etymologies, alliterations, and biblical symbols, and they are imbued with resonance and poetic genius. The zeal of Bernard extended to the bishops, the clergy, and lay people. After writing a eulogy for the new military order of the Knights Templar, he would write about the fundamentals of Christian spiritual life, namely the contemplation and imitation of Christ, which he expressed in his sermons “The Steps of Humility” and “The Love of God.”. It was here, also, that he produced a small but complete treatise on Mariology (study of doctrines and dogmas concerning the Virgin Mary), “Praises of the Virgin Mother.” Bernard was to become a major champion of a moderate cult of the Virgin, though he did not support the notion of Mary’s Immaculate Conception. The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramentally ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. Abelard sought a debate with Bernard, but Bernard initially declined, saying he did not feel matters of such importance should be settled by logical analyses. Early life and career The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. He was plagued most of his life by impaired health, which took the form of anemia, migraine, gastritis, hypertension, and an atrophied sense of taste. In June 1145, at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard traveled in southern France. James Meeker Ludlow describes the scene romantically in his book The Age of the Crusades: A large platform was erected on a hill outside the city. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Bernard-of-Clairvaux, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Saint Bernard of Menthon, Eternal Word Television Network - Biography of Staint Bernard of Clairvaux, The Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Franciscan Media - Biography of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard of Clairvaux - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Bernard de Clairvaux (cunoscut și ca Sfântul Bernard, n. 1091, d. 21 august 1153, Clairvaux) a fost un călugăr și conte de Châtillon. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. Growing up my family had a St. Bernard dog. Bernard was named a Doctor of the Church in 1830. There are many who believe that it was his championship of the Templars that made their survival possible.